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Figure 3 Phylogenetic relationship of the two Neanderthals and modern humans. a, A neighbour-joining tree computed using a total of 1,897 haplotypes derived from 5,846 modern humans19. b, A maximum parsimony branch and bound search with the two Neanderthal sequences along with the sequences of one !Kung, three other Africans, three Asians and three Europeans, all randomly selected19. This result is congruent with four additional data sets that were analysed. In both analyses, three chimpanzee sequences13 were used as an outgroup. The numbers in both diagrams refer to the bootstrap frequencies (%) obtained from 1,000 replicates. [an error occurred while processing this directive]